I broadly divide organizations into
- Active Directory based
When I say Active Directory based, I do not mean Microsoft. Price Waterhouse Coopers for instance is not Active Directory based but they have Windows notebooks and use Google Workspace.
Active Directory promotes a certain way of decision making that bonds all such companies together. The management attend the same events, receive the same vendors, buy the same solutions from the same suppliers, and in general tend to structure their businesses in similar ways.
People around me are so used to Active Directory companies, that they do not see it, but I had a chance to work in a Silicon Valley style unicorn, local and European businesses that are not Active Directory based, and the difference is huge.
A company that by choice or by accident has no Active Directory also had a chance to reinvent its organisation, not just its IT. Such companies differ more from each other than Active Directory companies. Adaptation, improvisation are their competitive advantage.